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دانشگاه الزّهراء

دانشکده الهیّات و ادبیّات

 

پا یا ن نا مه

جهت اخذ درجه کارشناسی ارشد

رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی

 

عنوان

استفاده از موّاد آموزشی اصیل برای پیشرفت درک مطلب شنیداری در کلاس های انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی

 

استاد راهنما

سرکار خانم دکتر کارکیا

 

استاد مشاور

سرکار خانم دکتر قهرمانی قاجار

 

دانشجو

لیلا قادرپناهی

 

 

 

IN THE NAME OF GOD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL-ZAHRA UNIVERSITY

 

Faculty of Theology and Humanities

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Master of Arts in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL)

 

Thesis Title

Using Aural Authentic Materials to Develop Listening Comprehension in the EFL Classroom

 

 

Thesis Advisor

  1. Karkia Ph.D.

 

Thesis Reader

  1. Ghahremani Ghajar Ph.D.

 

BY

Leila Ghaderpanahi

 

September, 2005

 

 

This thesis is approved by:

 

Dr.P.Karkia (Advisor)

 

________________________________________

 

 

 

Dr.S.Ghahremani Ghajar (Reader)

 

________________________________________

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Zahra University

Tehran-Iran

September, 2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEDICATION

 

 

 

To my beloved parents

 

for all their love, support and

 

insightful guidance prior and during

 

the completion of this study,

 

for teaching me the value of listening

 

Table of Contents

 

 

Acknowledgement                                                                                      X

 

Abstract                                                                                                      XI

 

List of Tables                                                                                              XII

 

 

Chapter 1: Introduction                                         1

 

 

  • Overview 1
  • Statement of the Problem and Purpose of the Study 5
  • Significance and Justification of the Study 6
  • Research Questions 7
  • Research Hypotheses 8
  • What Is Known About Listening 8
  • What Is Known About Authentic Materials 10
  • Definition of Important Terms 12
  • Delimitations 13
  • Limitations 14
  • Organization of the Master Thesis 14

Chapter 2: Review of Literature                            15

 

  • Introduction 15
  • Listening Comprehension 15

2.2.1     Definition of Listening                                                     15

2.2.2     Importance of Listening                                                   17

2.2.2.1     Listening and Academic Success                     18

2.2.2.2     Discovery Listening                                          18

2.2.3     Listening as an Academic Process                                    20

2.2.3.1     Knowledge Required for Listening                  20

Process

  • Listening Comprehension versus Reading 21

Comprehension

  • Listening Comprehension 23

2.2.5.1     Authentic and Listening                                 23

Comprehension

  • Different Kinds of Comprehension 24
  • Comprehension Preceding Production 25

2.2.6     Tasks for Listening Comprehension                               25

2.2.6.1     Performing to Indicate Understanding           27

2.2.6.2     Teaching rather than Testing                           28

2.2.7     Inner Speech and Language Learning                             29

2.2.7.1     Listening and Speaking                                    29

2.2.8     Maturation and Language Learning                               30

2.2.8.1     Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal                        31

Development

  • The Role of Background Knowledge in 32

Learning Language

2.2.9.1     Schema Theory                                              32

2.2.9.2     Background Knowledge/Prior                      33

Knowledge

2.2.10  Cultural Background                                                      35

2.3     Listening and English-as-a-Foreign-Language Learning           36

2.3.1     The Emergency of Communicative Language             36

Teaching

  • Communicative Approach: Some Principles 38

and Features

2.4     The Use of Aural Authentic Materials                                        40

2.4.1     Definitions of Authentic Materials                               40

2.4.2     Authentic Materials and Language Performance         41

2.4.3     Nature of Authentic Texts                                             43

2.4.3.1   Characteristics of Authentic Speech             43

2.4.3.2     Authentic Speech and Cultural Aspect         44

 

 

Chapter 3: Methodology                                      46

 

 

  • Introduction 46
  • Summary of the Study 46

3.2.1     Participants                                                                       48

3.2.2     Classroom Observation                                                   49

3.3     Demographic Data of the Students                                               50

3.4     Classroom Environment                                                               52

3.4.1     Setting                                                                                52

3.5     Classroom Practices                                                                       52

3.5.1     Listening Materials Implemented in Class                     52

3.5.2     Class Procedure                                                                53

3.6     Teacher’s Pedagogy                                                                       54

3.7     Interviews                                                                                       55

3.7.1     Interviews with Students                                                 56

3.7.1.1     First Interview                                                  56

3.7.1.2     Second Interview                                              56

3.8     Self-Evaluation Questionnaire                                                     57

3.9     Language Learning Strategy Questionnaire                                 58

3.10   Data Collection                                                                              59

3.11   Analysis of Data                                                                            60

3.12   Validity and Reliability                                                                63

Chapter 4: Results                                                   64

 

  • Introduction 64
  • Summary of the Study 64
  • Results of the Study 65

4.3.1     Results for Fundamental Research Question:                66

Influences of Aural Authentic Materials

4.3.1.1     Results from the Interviews with Students    67

4.3.1.2     Results from the Class Observation               69

4.3.1.3     Results from the Self-Evaluation                   71

Questionnaire

4.3.2     Summary of Findings Related to the Influences           72

of Aural Authentic Materials

4.3.3     Results for Secondary Research Question#1:               73

Learning Strategy Use

4.3.3.1    Results from the Interview with                     73

students

  • Results from the Class Observation 75
  • Results from the Learning Strategy 76

Questionnaire

4.3.4     Summary of Findings Related to the Learning              77

Strategy Use

 

4.3.5     Results for Secondary Research Question#2:                  79

Attitudes towards Language Learning

4.3.5.1     Results from the Interviews with                      79

Students

  • Summary of Findings Related to the Students’               80

Attitudes towards Language Learning

4.4   Overall Findings of the Study                                                        80

4.4.1   Students with no Progress in Listening Ability                81

4.4.2   Students with Progress in Listening Ability                     82

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5: Conclusion                                           84

 

  • Introduction 84
  • Summary of the study 84
  • Discussion of Results 86

5.3.1     Authenticity of the Listening Materials                         86

5.3.2     Influences of Aural Authentic Materials on                  89

Listening Comprehension

  • Use of Learning Strategies 92
  • Attitudes towards Language Learning 94

5.4     Conclusions                                                                                    96

5.5     Recommendations                                                                         102

5.5.1     Recommendations for Further Research                        102

5.5.2     Implications for Teaching                                                103

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography                                                                          105

 

Appendices                                                                             123

 

Appendix A                                                                                              124

 

Appendix B                                                                                              125

 

Appendix C                                                                                              129

 

Appendix D                                                                                              131

 

Appendix E                                                                                               137

 

Appendix F                                                                                               145

 

Appendix G                                                                                              147

 

Appendix H                                                                                              148

 

Appendix I                                                                                                149

 

Appendix J                                                                                                150

Appendix K                                                                                              151

 

Appendix L                                                                                               157

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acknowledgements

 

 

It is the highest time I seized the opportunity to offer my most genuine and profound words of gratitude to many people to whom I owe the accomplishment of this research. Among many people who have bestowed, most kindly, their invaluable help upon me I should specifically thank my honorable thesis advisor, Dr.Karkia, who patiently went through every line of this thesis and provided me with many insightful comments and invaluable suggestions. I would also like to extend my sincere appreciation and gratitude to Dr. Ghahremani Ghajar, my thesis reader, for her most professional guidelines, meticulous reading of this manuscript, making insightful suggestions and corrections; for her expertise and time. I am also very much grateful to Dr. Rahimi for her critical evaluation, and judgment of this thesis.

Also my thanks and best wishes go to all students who participated in the present study, without whose cooperation this research would not have been conducted.

Last, by no means least, a truly cordial sense of thankfulness to my parents General Ali Ghaderpanahi and Firooze Nobariyan for their support and everlasting encouragement throughout my educational years.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

The fundamental purpose of this study was to examine the influences of aural authentic materials on listening ability of thirty female undergraduate psychology majors studying English as a foreign language. The secondary purposes of the study were to identify the learning strategies used by EFL students experiencing authentic listening texts and to determine the influences of authentic materials on EFL students’ attitudes towards learning English.

A quantitative and qualitative analysis was offered in this study. It basically focused on using authentic materials and real-life situations as part of the communicative approach. Sources for designing and implementing effective listening strategy instruction and the transcript of one-hour videotaped session were recorded and analyzed. The results of the listening comprehension posttest were compared to that of the pretest using a 2-tailed t-test (p < .05). A one-way ANOVA on the mean strategy use was applied      (p < .05).The results of the qualitative data analysis were in line with and confirmed that of quantitative. Analysis of the interviews and the questionnaires revealed that the use of authentic materials in the EFL classroom helped increase students’ comfort level and their self-confidence to listen to the foreign language. Results showed a statistically significant improvement in listening ability, as well as the positive effect on EFL students’ motivation to learn the language. Recommendations were offered to ease students’ frustration that resulted from the speed of authentic speech. Pedagogical implications of the results were discussed along with the impact on EFL students’ listening comprehension development.

List of Tables

 

Table 1: Source of Data                                                                           48

 

Table 2: Demographic data of Strategy                                                  51

 

Table 3: Analysis of Data                                                                        62

 

Table 4: Interview Results                                                                       68

 

Table 5: Results from Class Observation                                               70

 

Table 6: Students’ Responses on Self-Evaluation Questionnaire       71

 

Table 7: Interviews with Students on Learning Strategy Use              74

 

Table 18: Class Observation on Learning Strategy Use                       75

 

Table 9: Responses to Questionnaire on Learning Strategy Use         78

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